Signs and symptoms of pericarditis
A common symptom of acute pericarditis is a sharp, stabbing chest pain, usually coming on quickly. It's often is in the middle or left side of the chest, and there may be pain in one or both shoulders.
Sitting up and leaning forward tends to ease the pain, while lying down and breathing deep worsens it. Some people describe the pain as a dull ache or pressure in their chest.
The chest pain may feel like a heart attack. If you experience chest pain, call 911 right away because you may be having a heart attack.
Fever is another common symptom of acute pericarditis. Other symptoms are weakness, trouble breathing and coughing. Palpitations, which are feelings that your heart is skipping a beat, fluttering or beating too hard or too fast, may occur and can be a sign of deeper heart tissue involvement.
Chronic pericarditis often causes tiredness, coughing and shortness of breath. Chest pain is sometimes absent with this type of pericarditis. Severe cases of chronic pericarditis can lead to swelling in the stomach, feet, ankles and legs and hypotension (low blood pressure).
Complications of pericarditis
Two serious complications of pericarditis are cardiac tamponade and chronic constrictive pericarditis.
- Cardiac tamponade happens if too much fluid collects in the sac, putting pressure on the heart. This prevents the heart from properly filling with blood, so less blood leaves the heart, causing a sharp drop in blood pressure. Untreated cardiac tamponade can be fatal.
- Chronic constrictive pericarditis is a rare disease that takes time to develop. It leads to scar-like tissue forming throughout the sac around the heart. As the sac becomes stiff and unable to move properly, the scarred tissue starts to compress the heart and prevent it from functioning well.
A doctor diagnoses pericarditis based on your medical history, a physical exam and test results.
Primary care doctors, such as a family doctor, internist or pediatrician, often diagnose and treat pericarditis. A cardiologist, pediatric cardiologist or infectious disease specialist may be involved, depending on the patient’s age and medical conditions.
Your doctor may ask whether you have had:
- A recent respiratory infection or flu-like illness
- A recent heart attack or injury to your chest
- Other medical conditions
If you have chest pain (angina), your doctor will ask you to describe how it feels, where it's located and whether it's worse when you lie down, breathe or cough.
When the pericardium is inflamed, the fluid between the sac's two layers of tissue increases. So your doctor will look for signs of excess fluid in your chest. A common sign is the pericardial rub. This is the sound of the pericardium rubbing against the outer layer of your heart. Your doctor will listen for this using a stethoscope.
Your doctor may hear other chest sounds that are signs of fluid in the pericardium (pericardial effusion) or the lungs (pleural effusion). Both are more severe problems related to pericarditis.
Your doctor may recommend tests to diagnose your condition and its severity. The most common tests are:
- EKG (electrocardiogram): This detects and records your heart's electrical activity, with certain EKG results suggesting pericarditis.
- Chest X-ray: A chest X-ray takes pictures of the inside of the chest, including your heart, lungs and blood vessels. The pictures can show whether you have an enlarged heart, which can be a sign of excess fluid in your pericardium.
- Echocardiography (PDF): This test uses sound waves to create pictures of your heart, showing its size and shape and how well it's working. It can show fluid build-up in the pericardium.
- Cardiac CT (computed tomography): This X-ray takes a clear, detailed picture of your heart and pericardium and helps to rule out other causes of chest pain.
- Cardiac MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A cardiac MRI uses magnets and radio waves to form detailed pictures of your organs and tissues. It can show changes in the pericardium.
Your doctor also may recommend blood tests to find out if you've had a heart attack, the cause of your pericarditis and the extent of inflammation in your pericardium.