What is high blood pressure (HBP)?
High blood pressure means that the force of the blood pushing against the sides of your arteries is consistently in the high range. This can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure or kidney failure.
Two numbers represent blood pressure. The higher (systolic) number shows the pressure while the heart is beating. The lower (diastolic) number shows the pressure when the heart is resting between beats. The systolic number is always listed first.
A blood pressure reading of less than 120 over 80 is considered normal for adults. A blood pressure reading equal to or higher than 140 over 90 is high. Blood pressure between 120–139/80–89 is considered “prehypertension” and requires lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
How does high blood pressure increase stroke risk?
High blood pressure is the single most important risk factor for stroke because it’s the No. 1 cause of stroke.
HBP adds to your heart’s workload and damages your arteries and organs over time. Compared to people whose blood pressure is normal, people with HBP are more likely to have a stroke.
About 87 percent of strokes are caused by narrowed or clogged blood vessels in the brain that cut off the blood flow to brain cells. This is an ischemic stroke.About 13 percent of strokes occur when a blood vessel ruptures in or near the brain. This is a hemorrhagic stroke. Chronic HBP or aging blood vessels are the main causes of this type of stroke.
Who is at higher risk?
- People with a family history of high blood pressure
- People age 35 or older
- People who are overweight or obese
- People who eat too much salt
- People who drink too much alcohol
- Women who use birth control pills
- People who aren’t physically active
- Pregnant women
How can I control high blood pressure?
Even if you have had a prior stroke or heart attack, controlling high blood pressure can help prevent another one. Take these steps:
- Lose weight if you’re overweight.
- Eat a healthy diet that’s low in salt, saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol.
- Eat fruits and vegetables, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products.
- Enjoy regular physical activity.
- Limit alcohol to no more than two drinks a day if you’re a man and one drink a day if you’re a woman. Check with your doctor about drinking alcohol; it can raise blood pressure.
- Take medicine as prescribed.
- Know what your blood pressure should be and try to keep it at that level.
- Talk to your doctor, nurse or other healthcare professionals. Ask about other stroke topics.
- Call 1-888-4-STROKE (1-888-478-7653) or visit us online at StrokeAssociation.org to learn more about stroke.
- Call the American Stroke Association’s “Warmline” at 1-888-4-STROKE (1-888-478-7653), and:
- Sign up to get Stroke Connection, a free magazine for stroke survivors and caregivers.
- Talk to other stroke survivors and caregivers and find local support groups.
We have many other fact sheets to help you make healthier choices to reduce your risk, manage disease or care for a loved one. Visit strokeassociation.org/letstalkaboutstroke to learn more.
Knowledge is power, so Learn and Live!
Do you have questions for your doctor or nurse?
Take a few minutes to write your questions for the next time you see your healthcare provider:
What should my blood pressure be?
How often should my blood pressure be checked?
©2012, American Heart Association